How much weight should I lose?
Try to set yourself a realistic goal eg. a gradual 5 to 10% weight loss.
- Aim for sustained weight loss. The health benefits of a 5 to 10% loss of weight are considerable.
- Set a realistic goal eg. 5 to 10% weight loss.
- Lose weight at a maximum of 0.5 to 1Kg per week (go slowly!
- Aim for long term health benefits
Some people are motivated by a target to lose a much greater amount of weight than 5% to 10%! However, it’s fair to say that most (but not all) do not find those sorts of targets achievable in the long term – but go for it if that works for you!
What non-medical options are there?
Most people looking at this will have tried to lose weight many times – perhaps going from one diet to another their whole life. There will be some success stories. In terms of non-medical options, the occasional person reports losing and sustaining very significant weight loss with a particular type of diet, but those experiences are not reproducible. In other words, what works for one person may not work for another.
It’s important for people to feel supported in their attempts to lose weight through physical activity and dietary changes. There are a variety of ways of accessing help. Government funded programs come and go – your doctor will know what is or is not available in your area.
The main non-medical options (which may be combined) include:
- Regular physical activity – of course very important but probably not enough
- Diets – lots will make promises, research doesn’t come down heavily on one being better than another. Consider, however, the proven health benefits from eating a Mediterranean-type diet. The very low energy diet is a medical option & described later on.
It’s important for people to feel supported in their attempts to lose weight through physical activity and dietary changes.
Any dietary tips for weight loss?
The truth is that no particular diet program is superior to another for weight loss or weight maintenance. Evidence from scientific studies support the following:
- Look at portions & proportions. Some people prefer to leave their plate empty even if they are already full.
- Consider increasing the proportion of vegetables relative to grain & protein foods.
- Cut out Sugary Drinks – evidence from three trials shows that this change results significant weight loss
- Drink 500mls of water half an hour before a meal has been proven to help with weight loss.³
- Be aware that fruit drinks usually contain a high amount of calories.
Extreme diets such as liver detox and juicing have minimal to no scientific evidence. Having said that, do whatever you need to do to restrict calories in a sustainable healthy way.
What are the medical options for weight loss?
Medical options for weight loss are growing and a GP with an interest in obesity management will be in a good position to discuss or take you through a medical weight loss program.
The most intensive medical options are:
- Very low Energy Diet (VLED)
- Bariatric Surgery
What is a Very Low Energy Diet?
A Very low energy diet (VLED) is a diet with less than 800 kCal per day. Optifast is the best known in Australia and is provided in a “kit form” – as shakes and soups for example. The first phase lasts up to 12 weeks and typically includes 3 meal replacements per day, at least 2 low-starch vegetables, 1 tablespoon of oil, and 2L of water.
A VLED works because it induces a state of “ketosis” that in itself reduces appetite. After a few days, the chances are you won’t feel hungry although there may be side effects such as fatigue, dizziness & menstrual disturbances.
Evidence shows that a VLED leads to a substantial weight loss when supported & monitored by both The GP & dietician.
The big advantage of a VLED compared to a normal ‘diet’ is that the ketosis suppresses appetite. Why? Because ketosis causes an increase in cholecystokinin which is a natural appetite suppressant. Ketosis also suppresses the hunger-hormone ‘ghrelin.’ In effect, ketosis is your friend.
The clinic has its own VLED recipe which is not quite as intense as the 100% VLED whilst still being effective.
A Very low energy diet (VLED) is not suitable during pregnancy, breast feeding, adolescence, age over 65, recent heart attack & some rare medical conditions such as porphyria. Also avoid with alcohol or drug abuse. May not be suitable in people with specific psychological problems.
The doctor will check your medical history, perform an appropriate physicam exam including your Blood Pressure, and arrange an ECG & Urine Test when appropriate. Guidelines suggest baseline blood tests that are repeated should the diet continue at 3 months.
Specific medical treatments may supplement lifestyle attempts to loose weight and there are a range of options.
Orlistat (Xenical®). This inhibits the protein that helps to absorb fat in the gut. Dietary fat in the gut is therefore not completely broken down – and so remains in the bowel – and ends up in bowel motions. So the classic side effects are oily spotting of the bowel motions, flatulence, loose stools – these are most noticeable after a fatty meal. The evidence points to a weight loss of around 3Kg weight loss at 1 year’s treatment.
Phentermine (duromine®): This increases the available dopamine in the nervous system and therefore the side effects may include symptoms such as palpitations, headache, and may also increase the blood pressure that will need monitoring. The main downside, though, is that the medication is only licensed for 3 months use. The evidence points towards a weight loss immediately following treatment of around 3.5Kg.
Metformin. This medication has been around a long time to treat type 2 diabetes and more recently polcystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). A study of women with infertility & obesity showed a loss of BMI of 0.68 after 6 months metformin, and another study of women with obesity on anti-psychotic medication² found a weight loss of 4.8% after 3 months. Metformin is not approved to treat obesity on its own.
Liraglutide (Saxenda®) was introduced in Australia in 2016. The cost is a big factor for most people at around $387 per month. Saxenda is given by a self-administered daily injection. The results from the clinical trials look encouraging with 1 out of 3 people losing over 10% of their body weight.
Topiramate is not licensed for weight loss but is another option for prescribing by a doctor experienced in the management of weight loss. Side Effects are dose-related. Topiramate may be combined with Phentermine with appropriate medical supervision.
Lorcaserin is available in the USA but not in Autralia yet, and is a specific anti-obesity medication that results in a 3.2Kg average weight loss.
What about Bariatric Surgery?
Bariatric surgery often results in sustained significant weight loss. There are over 5 Bariatric Surgeons in Brisbane. Out-of-Pocket costs of a gastric sleeve after insurance varies significantly. Typically, the out-of-pocket cost is around the $2500 to $3500 mark in Brisbane though there are some services a little further away that get this down to around the $1500 mark.
The barrier to bariatric surgery are:
- Concerns over side effects
- Cost. Some medical insurance companies do not cover bariatric surgery but plenty do – including the option to be covered immediately on joining (ask!).
- Perhaps a feeling that obesity can be “beaten” without surgery – maybe it can & certainly other options should be pursued.
Weight loss statistics (in general) are not encouraging. A recent 10 year follow up study of nearly 280,000 people showed “The annual chance of obese patients achieving five per cent weight loss was 1 in 12 for men and 1 in 10 for women. For those people who achieved five per cent weight loss, 53 per cent regained this weight within two years and 78 percent had regained the weight within five years.” However, within these figures some people do manage to maintain weight loss.
There has been quite a lot of publicity over side effects of bariatric surgery. When considering risks, bear in mind also the risk of ongoing severe obesity. The risks of ongoing obesity are usually the back of people’s minds when bariatic surgery is suggested.
The UK NICE guideline on bariatric surgery were updated in 2014 to suggest bariatric surgery be considered for people with
- BMI 40 or more
- BMI 35 or more with type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure or other significant conditions
Consider this: The NICE guidelines are funded by the UK government to advice on what the publicly funded national health service should fund in the UK – at a time of major resource limitations. The NICE guidelines suggest bariatric surgery at these thresholds because they have assessed the scientific facts: The risk of ongoing moderate to severe obesity generally outweighs the risk of surgery. This message may be lost at times because the risks of obesity is not something that is “out there” as much as it should be – perhaps because of the sensitivities involved. Follow this health.gov.au link to read about the risks of obesity.
Without surgery, around 90% of people with obesity eventually regain the weight they’ve lost. The author of this blog is a strong advocate of weight loss surgery.
The risk of ongoing moderate to severe obesity generally outweighs the risk of surgery
What are the health benefits of weight loss?
The health benefits in terms of reducing or controlling diabetes and reducing cardiovascular risks, high Blood pressure & Sleep Apnoea are very well known. Weight Loss also helps Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and improves fertility rates following IVF.
The cancer risks of obesity are perhaps less well known. The lancet recently published a study into the effects of obesity on 22 different cancer and found that obesity is linked to 17 of them – some of the links are known to be very strong associations.